Cold cathode ionization (Penning)
Cold cathode donor or Penning, which is also said, measures vacuum from very low pressure (E-9 / E-8) up to the E-2 range, and in combination with a piranha all the way up to atmospheric pressure.
By applying a high voltage across an electrical circuit, the sensor ionizes gas particles in the system. The ionized particles are then passed through a magnet to the cathode. By measuring the current in the ionized particles (in the gas), the measurements are converted to a signal which is proportional to the current pressure. The principle also works at very low pressures.
The sensor is robust and has a relatively long life.
Examples of applications:
• Sputtering and coating
• SEM (microscope)
• Process industry (mixed)
• Vacuum Heat treatment
• Mass spectrometry